If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us. (1 John 1:10)
The concept of the Manifest Destiny has acquired a variety of meanings over the years, and its inherent ambiguity has been part of its power. In the generic political sense, however, it was usually used to refer to the idea that the American government was "destined" to establish uninterrupted political authority across the entire North American continent, from one ocean to the other.
Themes and influences
- the virtue of the American people and their institutions;
- the mission to spread these institutions, thereby redeeming and remaking the world in the image of the U.S.; and
- the destiny under God to accomplish this work.
Effect on continental expansion
British North America
Filibustering in Canada
Mexico and Texas
Filibustering in the South
Beyond North America
Spanish-American War and the Philippines
- Notes Colonialism
- Golden Circle — an attempt at Cultural Imperialism in Central America after the failed Federal Republic of Central America.
- Frontier Thesis — Frederick Jackson Turner conclusion that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier.
- The White Man's Burden — an influential poem by Rudyard Kipling advocating colonization by the United States
- Young America movement — a political and literary movement with connections to Manifest Destiny
- Expansionism — for expansionist ideas in other countries
- Frances Fuller Victor — prominent western historian and fiction writer who captured the spirit of western expansion
- Thomas Hart Benton — Missouri senator, proponent of western expansion
- Stephen A. Douglas — prominent spokesman of "Young America"
- Horace Greeley — helped popularize the phrase "Go West, young man."
- Duff Green — writer, politician, and prominent Manifest Destiny advocate
- Manifold destiny — an influential article on a scientific controversy, alluding to the historical concept
- Lebensraum — a similar concept followed by Nazi Germany
- American Empire
- ^ Lawrence Davidson: Christian Zionism as a Representation of American Manifest Destiny
Rodrigue Tremblay: The myth of Manifest Destiny, Take Two
Snodgrass, Judith. Presenting Japanese Buddhism to the West, pp. 27.
Caldwell, Wilber W. American Narcissism: The Myth of National Superiority, p. 91.
Anders Stephanson: Manifest Destiny: American Expansion and the Empire of Right
- ^ The term first appeared in 1839 in the politically affiliated journal, United States Magazine and democratic Review. Although the term was, and often still is, attributed to editor John L. Sullivan, author Linda S. Hudson has argued convincingly that it was coined by writer Jane McManus Storm; Greenburg, p. 20; Hudson 2001; O'Sullivan biographer Robert D. Sampson disputes Hudson's claim for a variety of reasons (See note 7 at Sampson pp. 244–245).
- ^ Stephanson's Manifest Destiny: American Expansionism and the Empire of Right examines the influence of Manifest Destiny in the 20th century, particularly as articulated byWoodrow Wilson and Ronald Reagan.
- ^ Tuveson quote, p. 91.
- ^ O’Sullivan, John L., A Divine Destiny for America, 1845.
- ^ O'Sullivan, John L. (July-August 1845). "Annexation". United States Magazine and Democratic Review 17 (1): 5–10. Retrieved 2008-05-20.
- ^ Howard Zinn, A people's history of the United States. 1492 - present, HarperCollins Publishers, New York,2005, p. 151.
- ^ Robert W. Johannsen, "The Meaning of Manifest Destiny", in Haynes.
- ^ McCrisken, Trevor B., Exceptionalism: Manifest Destiny (accessed 2008-05-20), in Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, Vol. 2, p. 68. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York (2002). ISBN 0684806576.
- ^ Weinberg, p. 145; Johannsen, p. 9.
- ^ Johannsen, p. 10.
- ^ Winthrop quote: Weinberg, p. 143; O'Sullivan's death, later discovery of phrase's origin: Stephanson, p. xii.
- ^ Weeks, p. 61.
- ^ Haynes, pp. 18–19.
- ^ Stuart and Weeks call this period the "Era of Manifest Destiny" and the "Age of Manifest Destiny," respectively.
- ^ Continental and Continentalism, sociologyindex.com.
- ^ Adams quoted in McDougall, p. 78.
- ^ McDougall, p. 74; Weinberg, p. 109.
- ^ a b Stuart, p. 76.^ O'Sullivan and the U.S. view of the uprisings: Stuart, pp. 128-46.^ O'Sullivan against intervention: Stuart p. 86; Filibusters: Stuart, ch. 6; Fenians unrelated: Stuart 249.^ Treaty popular: Stuart, p. 104; compass quote p. 84.^ Merk, pp. 144–47; John Douglas Pitts Fuller, The Movement for the Acquisition of All Mexico, 1846-1848 (1936); Thomas R. Hietala, Manifest design: American exceptionalism and Empire (2003)^ Calhoun, John C. (1848). "Conquest of Mexico". TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Retrieved 2007-10-19.^ McDougall, pp. 87–95.^ Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. pp. 150. ISBN 9781400053636.^ Weeks, pp. 144–52.^ Merk, p. 214.^ Philip Fisher (1985), Hard Facts: Setting and Form in the American Novel (4, reprint ed.), Oxford University Press US, p. 26, ISBN 9780195041316^ Republican Party platform; context not clearly defined, Merk p. 241.^ McKinley quoted in McDougall, pp. 112–13; "anithesis" of Manifest Destiny: Merk, p. 257.^ Merk quote, p. 257^ For a discussion of this question, see Gould 1980, pp. 140-142.^ Kipling, Rudyard The White Man's Burden.^ McKinley quoted in McDougall, p. 112; Bryan quoted in Weinberg, p. 283.^ "Safe for democracy"; 1920 message; Wilson's version of Manifest Destiny: Weinberg, p. 471.
- Greenberg, Amy S. Manifest Manhood and the Antebellum American Empire. Cambridge U. Press, 2005. 323 pp.
- Haynes, Sam W. and Christopher Morris, eds. Manifest Destiny and Empire: American Antebellum Expansionism. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, 1997. ISBN 0890967563.
- Hudson, Linda S. Mistress of Manifest Destiny: a biography of Jane McManus Storm Cazneau, 1807-1878 Texas State Historical Association, 2001. ISBN 9780876111796
- McDougall, Walter A. Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.
- Merk, Frederick. Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation. New York, Knopf, 1963.
- Sampson, Robert. [http://books.google.com/books?id=d1y5ew93xxIC John L. O'Sullivan and his times Kent State University Press, 2003. ISBN 9780873387453.
- Stuart, Reginald C. United States Expansionism and British North America, 1775–1871. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1988. ISBN 0807817678
- Tuveson, Ernest Lee. Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America's Millennial Role. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.
- Weeks, William Earl. Building the Continental Empire: American Expansion from the Revolution to the Civil War. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996. ISBN 1566631351
- Weinberg, Albert K. Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1935.
- Brown, Charles H. Agents of Manifest Destiny: The Lives and Times of the Filibusters. University of North Carolina Press, 1980. ISBN 0807813613.
- Burns, Edward McNall. The American Idea of Mission: Concepts of National Purpose and Destiny. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1957.
- Dunning, Mike. "Manifest Destiny and the Trans-Mississippi South: Natural Laws and the Extension of Slavery into Mexico." Journal of Popular Culture 2001 35(2): 111-127. ISSN 0022-3840 Fulltext: Ebsco
- Fresonke, Kris. West of Emerson: The Design of Manifest Destiny. U. of California Press, 2003. 201 pp.
- Gould, Lewis L. The Presidency of William McKinley 1980. Regents Press of Kansas. ISBN 0700602062, ISBN 9780700602063.
- Graebner, Norman A., ed. Manifest Destiny. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968.
- Heidler, David S. and Jeanne T. Heidler. Manifest Destiny. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003.
- Hietala, Thomas. Manifest Design: American Exceptionalism and Empire, 2003. Previously published as Manifest Design: Anxious Aggrandizement in Late Jacksonian America, 1985.
- Hofstadter, Richard. "Cuba, the Philippines, and Manifest Destiny" in The Paranoid Style in American Politics and Other Essays. New York: Knopf, 1965.
- Horsman, Reginald. Race and Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxonism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981.
- May, Robert E. Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America. University of North Carolina Press, 2002. ISBN 0807827037.
- Morrison, Michael A. Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War University of North Carolina Press. 1997.
- Pinheiro, John C. "'Religion Without Restriction': Anti-catholicism, All Mexico, and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo." Journal of the Early Republic 2003 23(1): 69-96. ISSN 0275-1275
- Sampson, Robert D. "The Pacifist-reform Roots of John L. O'Sullivan's Manifest Destiny" Mid-America 2002 84(1-3): 129-144. ISSN 0026-2927
- Sampson, Robert D. John L. O'Sullivan and His Times Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2003.
- Smith, Gene A. Thomas ap Catesby Jones: Commodore of Manifest Destiny (Library of Naval Biography Series.) Annapolis: Naval Inst. Press, 2000. 223 pp.
- Stephanson, Anders. Manifest Destiny: American Expansionism and the Empire of Right. New York: Hill and Wang, 1995. ISBN 0809015846